> Acne: sintomi, cause, rimedi

Definition of acne

acne is a skin disease that is characterized by an inflammatory process of the hair follicle and sebaceous gland attached. The result is what is commonly called “pimple” or “spot“, but also nodules and cysts. Normally appears on the face, neck, chest, back and shoulders. There are effective treatments, however the acne can be persistent. The pimples may heal slowly, and just when the disease appears in the way of definition, may appear other lesions.

acne è più widespread among adolescents, with a prevalence reported from 70 to 87 percent. Among children più small the disease is always più frequently.

depending On its seriousnessà, the acne can; cause damage ranging from emotional stress to skin disfigured. Before you begin treatment and the less is the risk of damage both physical and psychical.

Symptoms of acne

The features più common acne are:

    the

  • leather più greased, or seborrhea
  • the black dots and white (blackhead);
  • the

  • the pimples or boils inflamed (papules) or filled with pus (pimples).

If the home remedies do not work, consult the family doctor, who willà refer you to a specialist or prescribe some drugs. If the acne persists or gets worse is the case of necessary care of a dermatologist.

Acne causes

Four main factors cause acne:

    the

  • dead skin cells
  • the

  • clogged Pores
  • the

  • Bacteria
  • the

  • Excess sebum (a fatty substance that our skin produces to keep it elastic, waterproof and moisturized)

acne usually appears on the face, neck, chest, back and shoulders. These skin areas are more populated by the sebaceous glands (sebum) attached to the hair. Acne occurs when hair follicles accumulate excess sebum and dead skin cells.

in Fact, the hair follicles are connected to sebaceous glands. These glands secrete an oily substance (sebum) that is needed for lubrication of the hair and skin. Sebum is normally present along the shaft of the hair and on the openings of hair follicles.

When the body produces a quantity; excessive sebum and dead skin cells, the two factors can accumulate in the hair follicles forming an area of the skin where bacteria can thrive. The inflammation occurs when the pore becomes infected by bacteria.

If the pore causes a bulging of the wall of the follicle can; occur the appearance of a “white point“. If the “point” is opened in surface, può darken, causing a “black point“.

A black point, contrary to what you may; think, is; the “dirt” that fills a pore, but a amount; excess bacteria and sebum which in contact with air takes the typical colour that goes from brown to black.

When the hair follicle is clogged is infected or inflamed occurs the pimple. Pimples are swelling of the affected area with red spots and with a white centre. If the inflammation of the hair follicle does not find a way to the outside, can occur instead of the nodules or cysts under the surface of the skin. Other pores of the skin, like the openings of the sweat glands, usually are not affected by acne.

Complications

Certain factors can trigger or aggravate an existing case of acne:

    the

  • the diet. Studies indicate that certain dietary factors, including dairy products and carbohydrate-rich foods, such as bread, sandwiches and potato chips, can trigger acne. The chocolate è long been considered a food that can worsen the situation. A study done on 14 men affected by the disease showed a relationship between the intake of chocolate and a worsening of acne. However, the available evidence is not yet sufficient, more information is needed to examine the reason why this happens, or if the patients with acne should follow specific dietary restrictions.
  • the

  • the stress. Stress può acne worse.
  • the

  • the Hormones. The production of androgenic hormones increases in boys and girls during the pubertà,ò può to cause an excess of sebum produced by the glands. Also the hormonal changes related with pregnancy and the use of oral contraceptives can affect sebum production. In women, low amount; androgen può acne worse.
  • the

  • the Medicines containing corticosteroids, androgens or lithium can worsen the clinical picture.

Myths about acne

These factors have little effect on the disease:

    the

  • the fat. Eating fatty foods has little or no effect on acne.
  • the

  • the Skin dirty. Acne is caused by dirt. In fact, washing the skin excessively or with the use of soaps, aggressive or chemical substances, irritates the skin, a circumstance that può to cause a worsening of acne. Può be of help to gently remove sebum, dead skin and other substances.
  • the

  • the Cosmetic. The use of cosmetics does not necessarily worsen the situation, especially if you use a makeup that does not block the pores (noncomedogenics) and that is removed regularly. The so-called cosmetic Nonoily not interfere with the effectiveness of the drugs against acne.

risk Factors

The risk factors for acne are:

    the

  • the Substances fatty or oily. It is possible to develop acne when the skin comes in contact for prolonged periods with lotions and creams oily. Also the work environments, characterized by a significant presence of fat may raise the risk of disease, think of the kitchens, where the tanks fryers are continuously in operation.
  • the

  • the Skin subject to friction and pressure. Think of all of usò può to procure a damage to the skin, such as motorcycle helmets, backpacks, collars are very close.
  • the

  • the stress. A stress condition does not come with the acne, but who già suffers può go out to meet a turn for the worse.
  • the

  • the hormonal changes. These changes are quite common in adolescents, in women and girls and in individuals taking certain medications, including those containing corticosteroids, androgens or lithium.
  • the

  • the family History. The familiarà has a role in acne. If both parents have suffered, it raises the risk of affecting the children also.

Cures and treatments

If the products that can be purchased without a prescription have not improved the situation, the specialist doctor (dermatologist) può prescribe medications and treatments that allow you to:

    the

  • to Keep under control the acne;
  • the

  • to Avoid scarring or other damage to the skin;
  • the

  • Make the scars less noticeable.

The drugs used act by reducing the production of sebum, accelerate the replacement of skin cells, fighting bacterial infection reducing the inflammation and the risk of the appearance of the scars. It should be borne in mind that the majority of these drugs può also take months or years for the acne to disappear completely. Also, the skin può worsen before it improves.

The type of medication that the doctor prescriverà depends on the severityà of the situation. The prescription può go to the topical medications that you apply on the skin to oral taken by mouth. Not è excluded that the doctor can use these drugs in combination. Pregnant women with acne may not be able to take oral medications.

Farmaci topici

These products work best when applied on clean and dry skin, it is best to wait a quarter of an hour after washing. The first two weeks is difficult to find benefits and the skin may become more irritated, more red and dry with possible desquamation. To reduce these effects, your doctor may; recommend, in addition to a use gradual of the drug, the washing of the treated area after a short time by the application. Not è excluded that prescribe a different medication.

The prescription of topical medications more common for acne are:

    the

  • retinoids. You have like creams, gels and lotions. Drugs retinoids are derived from vitamin A. In general, apply in the evening, the first for three times a week to pass then, when the skin is used to it, the daily application. Its action is that of preventing the obstruction of the hair follicles.
  • the

  • the Antibiotics. Kill excess bacteria and reduce the redness. For the first few months of treatment many doctors use both an antibiotic and a retinoid, the first one applied in the morning and the second in the evening. To reduce the risk of resistance to antibiotics, the latter are often combined with benzoyl peroxide.
  • the

  • the Dapsone (Aczone). This gel è più effective when combined with a retinoid topical. Side effects include redness and skin dryness.

oral Medications

    the

  • the antibiotics. In cases of moderate or severe acne, your doctor might prescribe oral antibiotics with the goal to reduce bacteria and fight inflammation. The choices for the treatment of acne include the tetracycline, as the minocycline and doxycycline. Typically, in the course of three or four months, as soon as you start to experience an improvement in symptoms, or, on the contrary, when it is obvious that the drugs aren’t helping, your doctor may decide to administer decreasing (tapering). The goal is to prevent antibiotic resistance.
  • the

  • the combined oral Contraceptives. In women and teenage girls in the oral contraceptives combined proved to be useful in the treatment of acne. The Food and Drug Administration has approved three products that combine estrogen and progestin (Ortho Tri-Cyclen, Estrostep, and Yaz).
  • the

  • the anti-androgen. For women and teenage girls, in the event that the oral antibiotics do not obtain the effects desired benefits, the doctor is able to; take into consideration the medication spironolactone (Aldactone). It is a drug that blocks the effect of androgen hormones on the sebaceous glands. Possible side effects include painful menstruation and retention of potassium.
  • the

  • the Isotretinoin. It is a drug used in case of severe acne that does not respond to other treatments. Isotretinoin oral is very effective, however, because of its potential side effects, all the patients who take should be monitored carefully. Side effects più important, ranging from ulcerative colitis to an increased risk of depression and suicide, and severe birth defects. The FDA requires that women in età the fertile to which it is being prescribed the medication are involved in a specific monitoring program.

treatment

the following are the therapies that the doctor can decide, depending on the cases, alone or in combination with medications.

    the

  • the Extraction of pimples and blackheads. Dermatologists use special tools to gently remove whiteheads and blackheads (comedones) which have not disappeared with the use of topical medications. This technique può cause scarring if not properly applied.
  • the

  • the steroid Injections. Nodules and cysts can be treated by direct injection of a steroid medication. The treatment improves the appearance no proceed to their extraction. The side effects of this technique include thinning of the skin, the skin more clear, and the appearance of small blood vessels on the treated area.
  • the

  • the light Therapy. There are some therapies based on the light successfully tested. However need additional information to understand the ideal method of administration, such as the type of light source and the dose. Light therapy fights the bacteria that cause the inflammation. There are some that you can perform in a doctor’s office, others, such as that of the Light-Blue, can be made at home with a portable device. Possible side effects of light therapy are pain, temporary redness and sensitivityà in the light of the sun.
  • the

  • the chemical Peels. This procedure uses repeated applications of a chemical solution such as salicylic acid. E’ più effective if it is combined with other acne treatments, except those with retinoids oral. The chemical peels are not recommended for people taking retinoids oral becauseé the combination of treatments can; provide a significant irritation of the skin. The chemical peeling può to cause severe redness, flaking, blistering and discoloration in the long term of the skin.

Treatment of acne scars

The procedures used to diminish scars left by acne are the following:

    the

  • the Laser resurfacing. This is the procedure for laser skin resurfacing (skin rejuvenation ablative) that uses a laser to improve the appearance of the skin.
  • the

  • the light Therapy. For the treatment of scars can be used for some laser sources, intense pulsed light and radio frequency devices that do not harm the skin. These procedures, which heat the dermis to stimulate the formation of new skin. Even if they reduce the visibilityà and scars, and the results are very noticeable. Compared to other methods, the recovery time after the procedure are short, but it may take repeated treatments.
  • the

  • the Surgery of the skin. The one used is an excision procedure whereby the doctor removes the scar tissue and then suture the affected area to reduce the scar. The techniques are different, which may also involve a skin graft.
  • the

  • the Filler of soft tissues. Injection fillers of the soft tissues, such as collagen or fat under the skin can distend or stretch the skin. Thereò makes scars less noticeable. However, the effects are only temporary, so it is necessary to repeat the treatment periodically. Side effects include temporary swelling, redness and bruising.
  • the

  • the chemical Peels. these Are substances that are applied to the skin to remove the top layer and minimize scars più deep.
  • the

  • the Laser. It is a procedure used mainly in cases of scars very obvious. With a rotating brush, practice a smoothing of the surface layer of the skin. The result is that we try to achieve is to standardize the scars with the surrounding skin.

Remedies for acne

You canò have a care of your skin and to avoid or control mild acne with over the counter products and life-styles:

  • Use a gentle detergent to the areas that have problems. Wash two times a day using only your hands and warm water. Do not use abrasive tools. Make a shampoo every day if the problem occurs around the hairline.
    do Not use products that can irritate the skin and worsen acne, such as facial scrub, astringent, and masks. Also excessive washing can irritate the skin.
  • the

  • Try with counter products that facilitate the elimination of sebum and peeling. These are products that contain benzoyl peroxide as the active ingredient. Other attempts you can make with products containing sulphur, resorcinol or salicylic acid. These medicines that do not require a prescription can cause side effects the initial, such as redness, dryness and flaking that often improve after the first month of their use. If thereò not done, stop and consult your doctor. According to the FDA some lotions that are very popular as detergents and other skin products can cause a reaction is rare but serious.
  • the

  • Avoid products irritating. We recommend that you avoid cosmetic oily or greasy, sunscreens, products, hairstyling, or offsets of acne. It is better to use products labeled water-based or noncomedogenic.
  • the

  • With sun protection use a moisturizer oil-free (non-oily). The sun può worsen the acne and certain drugs used can make it more sensitive to the sun’s rays. Therefore it is a good idea to verify with your doctor if what you assume is among these. In the case that it is, is better to expose as less as possible and use a moisturizer not to fat that includes a sunscreen.
  • What comes in contact with the skin? Hair must be clean and not fall on your face. Not been too much time on his hands to the face and avoid the face to have a prolonged contact (pressure) with the objects, such as a mobile phone. Also tight clothing or hats can become a problem, especially when you sweat. Sweat and sebum may in fact help acne.
  • the

  • do Not squeeze the defects of the skin such as white spots or black. This practice could be the cause of infection or scarring.

Prevention

To prevent relapse, once the acne improves, it may be necessary to continue with the treatments used to improve the situation. It is therefore important to speak with your doctor.

it Is also possible to use these tips:

    the

  • Wash the areas with tendency to acne only twice a day. The washing removes excess sebum and dead skin cells. But to overdo it can; irritate the skin. Wash the affected areas with a gentle cleanser and use products with low-fat water-based.
  • the

  • to Use creams or gels that help keep the skin less oily. Use over the counter products that contain benzoyl peroxide or salicylic acid as the active ingredient.
  • Use makeup nonoily. Choose cosmetics with no fat that does not clog pores (noncomedogenics).
  • the

  • Remove the makeup before going to bed. Go to sleep with the cosmetics on the skin can; clog the pores. Also, it is a good idea to throw the old makeup and clean your brushes and cosmetic applicators with soap and water.
  • the

  • Wear clothes not fitting. The skin needs to breathe, heat and moisture; the can irritate. When possible, avoid narrow straps, backpacks, helmets, hats and sports equipment that they can make the friction on the skin.
  • the

  • Take a shower after sweating. Grease and sweat on the skin can lead to a relapse.

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