> Head lice and head lice: how to get rid of, causes and cures

The Pthirus Pubis, commonly called piattola, lives and reproduces between the hair of the pubis, eyelashes, and eyebrows.


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The Pediculus Humanus, also called lice, the haunting in the first place, the scalp, has a reproductive cycle that starts from nits (egg) to form the louse. The nits are laid in large part behind the ears and on the nape of the neck, adhere to the hair thanks to an adhesive substance which they secrete, hatch after a week.

The louse feeds, the blood that aspires pricking the scalp, causing così strong itching. The louse if removed from the head, having no more nourishment, it dies after a few hours.


più safe to prevent lice infestation is to observe daily the condition of the scalp, in case you need to detect the presence of nits, they must be pushed immediately. This può be made manually or with the aid of a comb, dense soaked in warm vinegar. The vinegar due to the acid ph dissolves the adhesive substance that secures the nits to the hair.

The use of pesticides at the preventive purpose it is recommended perché, moderately, toxic and ineffective. The louse does not distinguish between a head of freshly washed and a dirty one.


In the case d lice infestations is best to apply a shampoo or powder antiparasitic. It is needless to repeat the application one week prior. the

The head is not; a disease, makes no distinctions between social classes or between people who have più or less care of their own hygiene.

If a family member is suffering from head lice it is advisable to check the head at all. When è hit a small child you should immediately alert school, so that the other classmates are controlled. the

the Advice of the pharmacist.

The market offers a great variety; of products, are all quite safe and effective if used with caution and not overdo it in applications. I believe that the shampoo, for practicalityà both the pharmaceutical form to recommend. Make an application of conditioner after shampooing facilitates the removal of the nits, becauseé makes più easy-to-use comb the dense wet with warm vinegar. the

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Louse insights

The louse has a small size, 2-3 mm, shows a flattened body and yellow-brown, è equipped with six arts which is the endà is a nail-shaped hook which is fixed on the hair. The buccal organs is formed by a rostro pungent discharge to the suction. The proboscis is introduced into the skin is fixed through small teeth on the furniture.

During the puncture of the louse secretes a substance that has the propertiesà to numb the skin so as not to disturb the host organism, and to limit any adverse reaction. The louse injects also a substance that is an anticoagulant that makes the blood fluid during the suction, which lasts for several hours; the amount; sucked &is about 1 mg, an enormità compared to the mass of the parasite. The louse performs the operation described twice a day and for the duration of his life.

The head has two small antennas that have the task to detect the temperature and to steer the parasite in the find: the food and the partner. The louse also has a rudimentary visual system that has probably the aim to perceive only the changes of light, in fact, the deposition of the eggs takes place in the dark.

The eggs are resistant to many insecticides, are attached to the root of your hair by a secretion of sticky insoluble to water. The hatching of the eggs after about ten days, the young louse becomes reproductive after two weeks, during which accomplishes three mute.

The life expectancy of the louse is twenty days for the male, and forty for the female. The right temperature of the host organism is a factor of vital importance, in fact, the louse leaves immediately the head in the case of strong thermal soaring.

The effectiveness of the grip of the louse on the hair is a factor of extreme importance for its survival, becauseé out of his habitat, he would not do a few hours of life sinceé you would die of hunger and cold. The parasite, in order to ensure the survival of the species, has had to develop its capacity of reproduction, in fact, the female laying about ten eggs a day for whole of his life, può make sure more than three hundred direct descendants.

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In a month, each female può reproduce in a descent total of about 45,000 people, which after two months would be up to the impressive sum of 6.750.000. Fortunately, the reality is different becauseé not all individuals survive, others are eliminated with brushing or scratching.

The louse is one of the few living species that has not suffered the repercussions to the change of climate and habits of life of the man. The scalp is a small ecological niche that has undergone only minimal changes in the course of the centuries; the increase in the number of individuals of the human species has made, for these parasites, a significant increase in chanceà of life and reproduction.

the reasons for The resurgence of this annoying infestation are manifold: their efficient capacity; reproductive; the dispersion in the environment due to brushing, grattamenti, diving; the mixed use of lapels, chairs, headrests, hats, headphones, combs,…; the abilityà, if expelled, to find a new host organism.

The probability; of infection given current lifestyle habits have increased greatly compared to the past, in fact, the long stay in crowded places (work places, schools, transport, gyms….) not to be caught in the habits of life of our ancestors. Children have a higher probability; of infection for their games and for a più intense social life.


pediculosis is an event that is very common in the school environment, it should not be considered a coma because of poor hygiene. Often can; cause teachers and parents annoying embarrassments. The cause of lice depends on a very small parasite, long 2-3 mm, which lives solely on the man’s head and feeds on his blood.

The female lays 8-10 eggs (nits) per day, which attach themselves strongly to the hair with a substance that is sticky. From eggs laid in about 20 days will be born a new generation of parasites. The use of products for topical use containing permethrin (Nix, fluid cream, € 8,26) può be considered the treatment of choice against pediculosis.

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The massive use of products antipediculosi is making the lice always più resistant to permethrin and other pesticides, thereò has led him to study other therapeutic approaches. The study Hipolito has been performed in order to evaluate the effectiveness of treatments antipediculosi with a single product with respect to a binding of the two products.

115 children, of età between 2 and 13 years, were assigned to a comparative study on three groups: 39 were treated with creams to permethrin 1%, two applications for the 10 minutes a week apart from one another; 36 were subjected to oral therapy with trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (Bactrim, Abacin, Eusaprim, Chemitrim, Gantrim), 10 mg/kg/day in two doses daily for 10 days; 40 – è ran the combination treatment: application of creams to 1% permethrin and oral treatment with trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. The controls of the children were performed after 2 and 4 weeks.

at The first control visit, the successes have been from 79.5% among children treated with cream, permethrin 1%, and 83% among those subjected to oral administration of trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole; 95% in the group of combined treatment, local (permethrin), and oral trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole.

the visit of fourth week, the successes recorded in the same three groups were, respectively, 72%, 78% and 92%. Don’t have any significant side effects, only three of the children had to stop treatment because of the onset of the rasch related to the use of trimetroprim/sulfametossozolo.

The study Hippolito has shown that the association of permethrin with trimetroprim/sulfamethoxazole is a cure più effective only permethrin.

it should be used when traditional treatments have proven ineffective. The possible side effects of trimetropim/sulphamethoxazole we do not recommend the use as a treatment of first choice. The trimetroprim/sulfamethoxazole taken by the louse through the blood, sucked it acts by destroying the intestinal flora.

dr. Cesare Augusto De Silvestri


Attention to the eggs of lice, can resist più time to treatment

Page updated on 22/5/2005