> Ovarian cysts: causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment


The ovarian cyst develop mainly in women in età of fertile, and are small sacs filled with fluid that can develop within or on the surface of an ovary.

In the reproductive system of the woman are present, on each side of the uterus, two ovaries that have the shape and size of an almond. The eggs develop and mature in the ovaries and then be released in monthly cycles. Also the follicles are quite normal in which the eggs develop, they are sometimes called “cysts” but in this case the term is completely incorrect.

The ovary of the adolescents, in fact, which contains many of the follicles do not erupt because of the young ageà should be properly called “multifollicolare” and not “polycystic“, unless it is accompanied by signs of virilization. the più ahead of the item causes.

there Are many women who in their life have to do with the ovarian cysts. The majority of these are harmless and do not cause particular disorders. In addition, the majority of ovarian cysts resolve within a few months, and without the needà of treatments.

However, there are cases in which you canò be sure to check the rupture of an ovarian cysts, a circumstance which must not be underestimated and that può to cause severe symptoms.


most of The cysts, you reabsorb from the sun without causing symptoms. If a cyst reaches a large size può instead of causing a series of disturbances like abdominal pain or, in the case that the cyst puts pressure on the bladder, the woman può notify più often the need to urinate.

symptoms may include:


  • Increased need to urinate or difficulty; to fully empty the bladder
  • the

  • Sense of fullness or heaviness in the abdominal
  • the

  • pelvic Pain experienced shortly before the start of the cycle and which disappears just before the loop ends
  • the

  • pelvic Pain that può radiate to the lower back and thighs
  • the

  • Pain during bowel movements or tension intestinal
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  • pelvic Pain during sexual intercourse (dyspareunia)
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  • Nausea, vomiting or breast tenderness

può find a state of emergency when you experience symptoms such as abdominal or pelvic pain sudden or severe pain accompanied by fever or vomiting, or symptoms of shock such as feeling cold, dizziness, feeling of weakness, moist skin, rapid breathing. In the presence of these symptoms is necessary to resort to the care of a doctor.

Complications of ovarian cysts

in women post-menopausal women can develop a cysts cancerous that do not report their presence with the particular symptoms, but that sometimes the doctor is able to identify in the course of a gynecological examination. There may be cysts neoplastic to all età, and not è easy to detect in time for effective treatment, with all the investigations.

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The rare complications associated with ovarian cysts are:


  • the Break. The rupture of a cyst can; cause pain and internal bleeding.
  • the

  • the ovarian Torsion. If cysts become large, it is possible that the ovary change its position. You canò be sure to check rotation around the vascular axis of the ovary with a consequent throttling of the arterial vessels or venous. Thereò può bring to ischemia or necrosis of the ovary.


ovarian cysts develop mainly in physiological way as a result of the menstrual cycle. On a monthly basis in the ovaries to develop the follicles that ensure both the production of hormones (estrogen and progesterone) that the release of the ovum when ovulation occurs. If the follicle continues its growth occurs in the formation of a functional cyst, così call to define that the development is happening in the course of the normal menstrual cycle.

There are two types of functional cysts, in addition to other types not associated with the normal menstrual cycle.

functional Cyst


  • the Cyst ovarian. The follicular cyst usually do not cause any problems and disappear spontaneously in few weeks. Più or less around the mid-sixteenth; of the menstrual cycle the follicle that contains the ovum bursts. At this point, the egg begins its journey in the Fallopian tubes, waiting to be fertilized by the sperm. This process is activated by the pituitary gland that signals the follicle, through the release of large quantitiesà luteinizing hormone (LH), that è now is the time to “release” the egg. If this mechanism something does not work, as, for example, the non-release of the ovum, the follicle may continue to grow, becoming a cyst.
  • the

  • the Cyst luteiniche. After ovulation, the follicle that contained the egg begins to produce hormones for conception (estrogen and progesterone) and becomes the corpus luteum. If fertilization does not occur, the corpus luteum will start to self-destruct (luteolysis) which happens within a couple of weeks. Otherwise, continuerà to secrete hormones until about the sixth month of pregnancy. However, in the corpus luteum può accumulation of blood or other fluids that cause the formation of cysts. Normally these cysts are not a hindrance or a threat to a pregnancy, except in rare cases.


Some types of cysts are not related to the normal menstrual cycle. These include:


  • the Cyst dermoidi. This is training load of the ovaries containing fragments of hair, sebum, skin, teeth, nails, bones, cartilage, and other tissues. Typically develop only on one of the ovaries, however, can be bilateral and multiple. Except in rare cases, it is caused organic benign.
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  • the Cistadenoma. Develop from the cells of the outer surface of the ovary and can be filled with an aqueous liquid or a mucous material, like a gel, thick and sticky.
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  • the Endometriomi. The formation of these cysts is caused byendometriosis (endometrial cells that grow outside of the uterus). In this condition, it is possible that a part of the endometrial tissue adheres to the ovary and form a cyst. This type of cysts may cause pain during the menstrual cycle and sexual intercourse.

cysts dermoidi and cistoadenomi can increase the volume and move the ovary from its usual position. This increases the ability of ovarian torsion with abdominal pain.


cysts on the ovary can be identified at times with a simple examination. If the doctor suspects the presence suggerirà other tests to check the type of the cyst and decide possible care. To make the diagnosis is necessary to establish the dimensions and composition of the cyst. They will tryà to determine how much is big the cyst, then, and sarà necessary to ascertain if the cyst is liquid, solid or mixed. In general, the cysts are full of liquid and are not cancerous, a solid or mixed require investigations to exclude the presence of cancer.

To determine the type of cyst, the following methods are available:


  • the Ultrasound pelvic. This procedure is not painful using ultrasound. Displaying the image of the uterus and ovaries on a screen, the doctor può to study the cysts to confirm the presence and, in addition, to determine the position and the composition.
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  • Laparoscopy. It is a surgical procedure that requires anesthesia. Using a laparoscope, that is; a thin instrument that is inserted into the abdomen through a tiny incision. Thanks to the light placed on the topà of the instrument, the physician is able to observe the ovaries and, in the case, to remove the cyst.
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  • the pregnancy Test. If it is positive, può suggesting that the cysts in both the luteal and that its development is attributable to the follicle that once closed, after the release of the egg is filled with a liquid.
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  • the blood Test. It is used to detect the tumor marker CA-125. Women affected by ovarian cancer often have elevated levels of a protein called an antigen of the cancer 125 (CA-125). In cases where the woman presents a high risk of ovarian cancer and the development of a cyst partially solid, the doctor willà to investigate by testing the levels of CA 125 in the blood. However, high levels of CA 125 can also be present due to non-cancerous such as pelvic inflammatory disease,endometriosis, uterine fibroids


The doctor deciderà the type of treatment depending on the type and size of the cyst, the age and the symptomatology.


  • the Wait and monitor the cyst. It is an option that is to wait to see if the cyst resolves on its own. Usually ovarian cysts disappear within a few weeks. This is a strategy that does not depend on the età, but is adopted in the absence of symptoms and in case the ultrasound shows one cyst liquid and small in size. The doctor disporrà periodic ultrasounds to check on the progress of the cyst.
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  • the Pill. The use of the oral contraceptive pill is useful to reduce the possible formation of new cysts in future menstrual cycles. The advantage of oral contraception, moreover, is to reduce the risk of ovarian cancer. Più long it takes the pill and più lowers the risk.
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  • the surgical Removal. It is the option suggested by the doctor in cases where the cysts do not è functional, is quite large and continues to grow in the next two or three menstrual cycles. Other reasons that may suggest the surgical removal of the cyst depend on the pain and other symptoms. For the removal of some cysts, the procedure used is called a cystectomy ovarian, which is performed without removing the ovary. Another option that the doctor is able toà suggest è that of oophorectomy, that is, the removal of only one ovary affected.
    In the presence of a cystic mass in the tumor, the doctor may suggest a’total hysterectomy (is removed the entire uterus: body, bottom and neck), the removal of the ovaries and Fallopian tubes. Typically, physicians evaluate the surgical removal even in the presence of a cystic mass developed after the menopause.


Currently, there are no procedures or ways that allow to prevent the development of ovarian cysts. It is therefore important to pay attention to all the changes that may occur in the menstrual cycles, including any symptoms that may arise during the menses.

in Short, though it seems that pelvic examinations ultrasound regular, così as we know them, can give you more benefits than harms, are the studies on diagnostic algorithms that crossing the ultrasound markers can help to diagnose early carcinomas of the ovary.


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