Despite the aspects of the harmful smoke in pregnancy and on the fetus are well known, there is a real awareness on the part of women of the negative consequences that it entails, especially in relation to fertilityà and for the procreation.
women smokers, in fact, have higher difficultyà to remain pregnant. Nicotine alters the contrattilità of the tube, hindering the transport of the egg meeting with the sperm.
II smoke cigarettes, also causes a decrease in the levels of progesterone and makes it difficult I’m nesting of the fertilized egg in the uterine lining, altering the ripening process. Once you have established the pregnancy, smoking continues to exert a harmful effect.
Some studies già in the years ’60, one in Hawaii on the più of 5,600 pregnancies and another in the United States, about 1.914 pregnant women, documenting a più high incidence of spontaneous abortion among smokers compared to non-smokers.
Studies più recent events have confirmed these results, arriving at the estimate a risk increased by approximately 50% in spontaneous abortion in the first quarter to Ie strong smokers.
There is also a documented association between the cigarette smoking and ectopic with an increase in risk reported in smokers compared to nonsmokers, which varies from 30% to 200%. It has also been observed that even former smokers are at increased risk of pregnancy extrauterine.
The regular consumption of tobacco, after the 4° month of pregnancy, induces in the unborn child as a reduction of the height, mental and behavioral, an increased incidence of diseases, bronchopulmonary, and in the long term, an increased risk of cancer.
In the amniotic fluid of smokers were measured the nicotine that the cotonina and the blood of pregnant women smokers contain a higher concentration of carboxyhaemoglobin compared with non-smokers, possible fetal harm from carboxyhaemoglobin.
it is appropriate, finally, to remember that women should be in the menopause più early of the non-smokers, and più in general, that nicotine affects the endocrine balance of the central woman, with the alteration of the ovulatory cycle.
(Source: Directorate General of health prevention, Office IX ).
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Page updated on 15/6/2006