> Colorectal cancer: epidemiology, risk factors, and early diagnosis

risk Factors

About 80% of the carcinomas of the colon and rectum develops from precancerous lesions – polyps (adenomas with component dysplastic gradually increasing). Life-styles and the familiarà have long been implicated as factors in increased risk of incidence of these lesions.

Among the first stand dietary factors such as consumption of red meat and sausages, flours and refined sugars, obesity and reduced activity; the physical, the smoke and excess alcohol. About one-third of colorectal cancers have characteristics of familiarà due to the usedà hereditary.

Incidenza

carcinoma of The colon and rectum is the absolute cancer to a greater onset (incidence) in the Italian population, with almost 52.000 diagnoses estimated for 2012: among men is on the third place, preceded by prostate cancer and lung (14% of all new cancers), while in the women’s occupies second place, preceded by that of the breast, with 14%.

The spread of risk factors, earlier diagnosis and the increase of the age average of the population are at the basis of the progressive growth of the incidence of this cancer over the past decades. Net of the effect of età, this tumor confirms the growing trend in males (only forò in the locales colic), while in the women appears stable, both forms of colic than those rectal. The time trend for men is the past, from +2.1%/year in the years ’80-90 +0.7%/year in the last decade in the study, while in women the increase (+0.7%/year) appears to be consistent throughout the two decades examined.

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Mortalità

According to recent data, in 2012 we have registered almost 20,000 deaths for carcinoma of the colon and rectum (55% among men), the neoplasm to the second place in mortality,à cancer (11% in males 12% in females), and between the second and third place in the various età of life.

Survival

carcinoma of The colon-the rectum has a prognosis substantially positive, with 58% of the patient accidents in the early years of 2000 will be alive 5 years from diagnosis, with a moderate tendency to increase compared to the five-year periods earlier. The probability; of survive for a further 5 years increases after the diagnosis, being for surviving 1 and 5 years, respectively, 74% and 91% among men and 74%, and 92% among women.

the Prevalence (the ratio between registered cases and people at risk over a period of ten years)

Are nearly 300,000 patients with a previous diagnosis of carcinoma of the colon-rectum in Italy (51% males), at the second place among all cancers and 13.2% of all cancer patients.

16% of these is now over 15 years from the diagnosis (and 14% between 10 and 15 years), while the remaining portion is equally distributed within the 2, between 2 and 5 and 5 and 10 years (23-24% for each period).

In consideration of the stable slight tendency to decrease in mortalityà observed by long period of time, are, above all, the incidence (with the ever-increasing tendency to early diagnosis and to the diffusion of screening programmes in recent years) and the substantial good survival (tending to the improvement) to affect the “numbers” of people living with this type of diagnosis and their distribution along the clinical history, with obvious different needs for care and support in the follow-up.

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most of these people are concentrated in età più elderly, with the proportion over 75 years of age, 2.722 cases for every 100,000 inhabitants, more than double the range 60-74 years, and 8.5 times greater than that 45-59.

Diagnosi Precoce

The screening programme for colorectal is addressed to men and women aged 50 to 69 years of età: è intervention of active prevention through the test research of occult blood in the stool and the next colonoscopy in positive cases, with steady repetition every 2 years.

screening può allow for the matching and the removal of precursors (adenomas) before transformation to carcinoma and the diagnosis of the carcinomas in an early stage, with a consequent reduction of mortality,à for reduction of incidence of which for the detection of carcinomas in stages più the initial and, therefore, susceptible to healing after drug therapy.

Policlinico – presentation toll-free number (800-101-151) for the treatment of colorectal cancer‏

The Numbers of Cancer in Italy, 2012 – AIRTUM (the Italian Association of Cancer Registries) and AIOM (Italian Association of medical oncology).

14 June 2013