These are strips on a glass slide and, after having fixed them becauseé not changes are sent to the laboratory to be examined.
As with many discoveries of medicine è was accidentally invented in the course of another search. Dr. Papanicolau, from which the examination takes its name, was in fact doing some research on the changes in the cells of the vagina in relation to the hormonal changes related to menstrual cycle when it is realized that this technique could be used to identify cellular changes due to the lesions pre-cancer.
He divided the answer into five classes. The first was one of the smears perfectly normal, the second those changes related to inflammation and infections, the third these alterations in the transition from normalityà been, frankly, pre, (the so-called dysplasia in turn divided into mild, moderate, and severe ), the fourth the neoplasm still limited to the superficial layer of the mucosa (carcinoma “in situ”), the fifth the invasive carcinoma.
This classification has undergone revisions over the years, and while the classes have been practically abolished and the smears are perfect are currently considered, together with those of the inflammatory, normal, the third class has been replaced before by the expression CIN (intraepithelial neoplasia of the cervix), preserving the division into CIN 1, CIN 2, CIN 3, (coinciding with the carcinoma in situ), and then by the expression SIL (squamous intraepithelial lesion ) low-grade and high-grade.
The problem is that the CIN 1, and then the SIL to low-grade in the majority regress spontaneously, and then è important to establish whether we are faced with a lesion that may; be kept under observation, or if, instead, we found a lesion that is going towards a neoplastic degeneration, and that then is better to treat.
throughout Europe there are screening programs that include an offer is “active” ( when è the health-care facility that calls the user instead of waiting until it is ) and in this case, all steps are subjected to quality controlà.
In the theoretical elaboration of these screens is given more importance to the qualityà of the examination, its frequency, and, in fact, the exam is performed, if normal, every three years.
The cervical cancer has a natural history of the più of ten years,and since the purposes of the screening is to identify the forms of preinvasive, they are identified at the 90% also performing the exam every three years.
On the other hand, it will be run every year does not improve in a significant way the frequency of the diagnosis as the test is not; still, even if it is repeated very often, to locate the 100% of the forms that precede the cancer.
In Italy, the situation is rather inhomogeneous and Verona in 2000, when he was minister of the sanità,
has taken away the ticket to the pap test every three years, encouraging così the uniformityà prevention Italian to european.
In conclusion, pap test has its limits and its uncertainties, but do not run it mean, however, waive an examination free of charge or inexpensive, certainly little annoying and risk-free, but sometimes we can; to scare you for something trivial, other times, può allow to intervene così early let us not become ill from a disease, which, if taken in time, is totally curable. Do not forget to throw an eye to your neck of the uterus!
Ectopia, the piaghetta should not be burned
Prevention of cancer
The cancer of neck of uterus, risk factors
The tumor of the neck of the uterus. Prevention of cervical neoplasia
the Pap Test is unnecessary after a hysterectomy
Test for early diagnosis of tumors, which are useful?
Uterus retroverso, is that a problem?
Embolization uterine fibroid
Page updated on 5/11/2005