> Assisted reproduction techniques: the GIFT

GIFT you canò use only in certain couples (15-20%) with good results even in women 38-39 years. And it is precisely in the women’s ahead with the years, that the GIFT has given the più successes.

While in the IVF transfer into the uterus pre-embryos born from in vitro fertilization (that is; in the laboratory), in the GIFT you pick up the oocytes from the woman and the sperm of the man and moved at the same time in the tube. In this way, it is not known how many eggs will be fertilized and then how many pre-embryos will develop.

GIFT “classica”

The woman follows the same procedure as described for the IVF up to the moment in which the medical note the maturation of the eggs. He is given the hormone HCG (the hormone dellagravidanza) and 34-36 hours after it is submitted to laparoscopy under general anesthesia.

During the surgery, which lasts on average 30 minutes, then aspirated the contents of the follicles, the eggs are monitored by the biologist and re-aspirated into a thin catheter that già contains a fixed number of sperm. It is also possible to perform the sampling of the oocytes via the vagina as in the IVF procedure.

At this point, the catheter is made to penetrate inside the tube and the sperm and ova are lì filed. In women less than 36 years of age generally are introduced three to four eggs (divided between the two tube or all in the same tuba), in women over 36 years, the eggs are from four to six.

regarding the GIFT if the number of ovoci you is higher than necessary, you can fertilize and freeze the pre-embryos.

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GIFT “isteroscopica

it Is a variant of the GIFT classicae is to place eggs and sperm in the uterus under the guidadi a hysteroscope is introduced by the vagina. Is a technique that from the less ability to success, but that does not require general anesthesia.

The complications of the GIFT As for the IVF-c’è the risk of the onset of hyperstimulation syndrome, and are fre frequent occurrence in multiple pregnancies. Approximately 3-4% of pregnancies obtained with the use of the GIFT is intratubarica but is treated without surgery. the

IVF and GIFT: the ability to success In parità of clinical conditions (type of sterilità, età of the woman etc), IVF ensures that 26-30% of pregnancies, the GIFT of classical 40-42% and the GIFT isteroscopica the 30-32%.

ZIFT and TET: these Are techniques that require some time of IVF and the others of the GIFT. Transfer zygotes (fertilized eggs that had not yet begun cell division, are not yet pre-embryos – ZIFT), or pre-embryos (TET) in the tube.


Despite the progress of recent years, the percentualidi success in assisted reproduction techniques are not very satisfactory when the source of the ipofertilità you è an alteration of the characteristics of the seminal. Even the more sophisticated techniques of preparation of the seed, the goal of which is to select and concentrate the best sperm, have, to date, results are less encouraging in the treatment of severe dispermie.

To meet these challenges, over the past 10 years, has been the evolution of technologies related to assisted fertilization. Such techniques are commonly referred to techniques of micromanipulation, just becauseé allow the manipulation of ultra-fine cell gametiche.

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The ICSI (Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection), introduced in 1992 by the belgian group Van Steirteghem, and, in particular, of G. P. Palermo, is a technique that involves the injection of a single sperm directly into the cytoplasm the egg.

The extraordinary novità made by the ICSI to the entire field of medically assisted procreation (PMA) would lie in the way of enhancing the abilityà fertilizing of an individual, not più on the basis of a comparison between a concentration nemaspermica, più or less mobile, with one or more oocytes, but simply between a single sperm and an egg cell mature.

In other words, thanks to ICSI, it is now possible to speak of potentialà fe condante of those subjects until a few years ago considered to be absolutely sterile becauseé suffering from azoospermia non-obstructive.

Dealing with sperm taken directly from the epididymis (MESA) or from the testis (TESE) or precursor cell line spermatogenetica (spermatids), isolated from the ejaculate of these subjects, it is possible to obtain embryos vital able to give rise to serious dances. the

egg Donation

The in-vitro fertilization, and then the conception outside of a woman’s body, has opened the doors to the donation of sperm and eggs. Insemination with sperm from a donor represents one of the possible solutions for those couples in which the sterilità è linked to man’s problems.


there Are many situations in which a woman is forced to resort to egg donation: in the first place, of course, the amenorree ovarian primitive, early menopause, disgenesie (alteration of the capacity to procreate).

But there may also be cases in which the woman, while still in età fertile, non può to have their eggs: if the ovaries have been removed, if he underwent chemotherapy treatments for a tumor, if it is a carrier of a serious hereditary diseases that would be transmitted to the child.

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once the doctor and the couple have come to the conclusion of wanting to use the donation, the woman is subjected to a series of controls in order to determine if your uterus is normal and able to carry on a pregnancy. Then sarà the men to be subjected to controls given that sarà used his seed to fertilize the egg donated.

And now we come to the donor: può be anonymous, or a friend, a relative. Sometimes women who undergo artificial insemination, donate their oocytes in excess, but is a practice that is decreasing becauseé in general, women prefer to fertilize oocytes in excess and freeze the pre-embryos.

The woman the receiver, if it has the problems of amenorrhea, or any case of irregularityà menstrual, is subjected to hormonal replacement therapies in order to simulate a natural cycle. Even in women who have menstruation spontaneous tendency to adopt hormone replacement therapy in order to bring in parallel the woman-the donor and the woman receiving the same stage hormonal.

as The eggs are taken from the donor, fertilized with the seed of man in the laboratory and transferred to the uterus of the recipient. Once the pregnancy (after about 2 weeks), the hormonal therapy is changed to be then completely abandoned when the gestation is forward in time.

Ettore Cittadidini, Carlo Flamigni, A Child, wanting to be able to have – And. The New Italy Scientific

page updated on December 27, 2007