The photo of the conditions, the hardships and the problems faced today by women, seen through their eyes, è returned froma survey conducted in 2003 by the Association of Women’s Group and Justice of Modena on the tabs, users of the free Legal Advice of the Association, to be completed by the operators and by the avvocate voluntary Service.
The analysis uses the same methodology of the survey on the twenty years of activityà of the service, published in the volume “Twenty years of legal advice to the women: 1982-2002.
Data and reflections”, 2004 Edition, in order to facilitate the comparison between the results and assess the implications of any changes.
the characteristics of The users Origin
most of The users is of nationalityà italiana (73,29%) while women of other nationalitiesà to reach the 26%. Compared to the last few years there was a peak in the rise of the influx of foreign women (16,46%). Immigrant women who come from 28 different countries. In the head is always Morocco, from which comes the 15,28% of the users foreign. To follow, between the più represented: Poland(6,94%),ù, Romania, Russia, Switzerland and Cuba (5,56%) Albania (4,17%).
Modena is the municipality of residence of more than halfà of the users (51,26%), but are represented in a considerable way also the demands of women residents in the municipalities of the province of modena (over 41%), slightly down compared to 2002 (44%). The 2,53% of the users are from the Region of Emilia-Romagna and 1,08% in other Regions.
Grows considerably, the number of women in the range of età from 31 to 40 years(41%), between 51 and 60 years (15,47%) and the ultra sixty (7,55%). They represent little more than a fifth of the consumer, in a considerable reduction, both women and from 41 to 50 years (21,89%), both women from 21 to 30 years, fell below 14%. There are few, but slightly on the rise, the women of età less than twenty years (0,75%).
The given può to depend on the behavioural changes of young people compared to choices such as marriage or the union of the couple that lead us to postpone the formation of the nucleus of the family, moving, consequently, the emergence of the issues of relationship/cohabitation.
The increase of women più to be adult, seems to bear a consciousness of their rights of the same, not più willing to continue to endure experiences of violence and abuse, both psychological and physical.
A third of women who come to the service holds a diploma from the school (37%); 8.30% has a bachelor’s degree, 5,42% attended vocational courses, while 23% is in the possession of licensed media. the marital Status and parental
The marital status of more than halfà of the women who come to the service is “married” (almost 52%), an increase compared to previous years, così as the salt, the number of women in the status of “cohabiting” (over 10%), “single” (over 10%). Greatly diminish the user “separate legally”, “separated” and “divorced”.
The mothers constitute the vast majority of users and reach nearly 80% of the total, a percentage a little lower than the last ten years, as it rises, the percentage of users “without children”(almost 15%). The donnein waiting for a child, finally, constitute l’1,81%.
more Than two-thirds of the users work in employee – employed or the worker – (67%). Continues to be a minority, the number of women who carry out the activities; free professional, managerial and craft (7,26%). Decrease the “housewives” (7,22%) and “unemployed” (9,03%), while increasing the “retired” (9,75%).
Condition of capital and population
The wealth status reflects in part the professional. From the data it is, in fact, that approximately 78% of the users has their own income from work, pension or other sources, while about 18% do not have any income.
housing and real does not emerge fully, becauseè the information has been provided only by 58 users (21%). Of them, about halfà say they own the dwelling house “, the propertyà with the partner”; 17,24 have the propertyà of the house; the 15,52% that the house is “ownedà of the partners” and 8,62% live in a house “for rent”.
The problems and inconvenience reported by women
a Total indicated 318 cases of distress, including “psychological discomfort”, “economic discomfort”, “physical violence” and “discomfort/sexual violence”. The number exceeds the total number of users (277) sinceè the same has often referred to the più types. Are increasing the hardships of psychological type (over 66%), always on the first place among the causes of the suffering of the women, caused by behaviors such as: “threats,” “lack of interest in the family life”, “betrayal”, “persecution”, “controls”, “deception”, “lack of communication”, “blackmail”, “lies”.
The increase of situations of violence is denounced by the significant growth in entries for the “threats”(17%) “persecution” and “controls”,as indicated by the women for the 2003 among the main causes of discomfort. In the first place, in previous years, we marked the item “lack of communication”.
And also increase the discomfort/physical violence (20%), which indicates the aggravation of the tendency to the growth of the incidents of physical violence towards women, in the family environment. Although will lessen the entries related to “subtraction income”, “impeding the work”, “abandonment and loss” included in “economic hardships” (24%), within this category, increases in the item “total or partial non-payment of maintenance” (16,25%).
it Seems, therefore, a strong increase of the number of fathers who do not work with children after separation from the wife and/or partner. A positive fact concerns the decrease of the “hardships/sexual violence” (1%), and the “determination to change”, as expressed by 69% of the users.
it is worrying the increase of women who accuse “physical damage” (almost 20%) as a result of ill-treatment and violence. Decrease, on the whole, the conditions of psychological distress (depression, hopelessness, etc.), but grows the condition “fears/anxieties/phobias”, to be considered in close relation with the increase of abuse and violence that arouse in those who is struck by feelings of strong fear and concern for their incolumità.
The type of information requested
the room is dominated by requests for information on “separation” (43%), a decline compared to the past; fewer requests for information on “divorce”, he dropped down to 4%. While there are increasing demands on: “the economic situation and the balance sheet” (28,16%), “maintenance” (27,44%), “foster care children” (19,86%) and “family/society” (over 10%).
Are growing also requests information on “social assistance”, “housing”, “job search”, “subsidies”, a fact that highlights the existence of the situations of greatest difficulty; economic. In decrease, instead, the requests for help for situations of discomfort and psychological distress.
the leaders of The discomfort of the woman
If the “spouse” continues to be the most responsible for the hardships suffered by the woman (66,43%), and increased the responsibilityà of the “partner” (13%); of the family and of the child’s parental, such as fathers, mothers, brothers, sisters, children, in-laws, brothers-in-law (10,83%), in addition to the former partner (spouse or cohabitant) (3,25%).
The case histories of the problems/inconvenience the defendants from the women to the manager include: “lack of communication” (31%), “irresponsabilità” (30%), “violence/abuse” (over the 23%) entries in the net increase. Are stationary, the cases related to “other relationships” (10,47%), “problems with justice” (3,97%), while decreased those related to “problems at work” (1,81%). They are growing leaders with “social problems” such as ethyl, psychological distress, and drug addiction (2.53%).
These data, like those on the discomfort and on the status of women, the emergence of the worsening of family relationships and of torque and the increase of violence and aggressività physical and psychological towards women.
Modeà knowledge of the Association and of the legal advice service
still the “word of mouth” between women, friends, family, co-workers, the way più the town to reach the legal advice service of the Association (23,10%) even if it increases the number of users who received this nformation from local Services, health and social, both public and private (36%) and from print, TV and the Internet (12,27%).
Among the local services continue to have little influence on “the Police”, “Police Emergency” (or 0.72%), bodies to which women often seek help after having suffered threats and ill-treatment.