> Parkinson’s disease, estrogens slow down the death of neurons

for years, debating on the possibilityà that the cause of the reduced prevalence of the disease in the female sex is due to the possible role “protective” of estrogen, the main female sex hormones.

The possibilityà that they constitute an effective therapeutic tool remains the object of study. This and other aspects of pathology will be studied in depth in the 30th November, on the occasion of the V the National Day of awareness on Parkinson’s disease, sponsored by Committee Limpe and Dismov-Sin.

women there is a maximum amount; of nerve endings in the brain dopaminergic than men and when they develop the disease have più frequently forms with the tremor that are generally to the trend in più slow and less severe. Many recent studies show that in women, usually in the forms of Parkinson’s less severe, becauseé protected by female hormones.

sex hormones influence significantly the dopaminergic system, which is altered in the pathology. Researchers are beginning to understand the effect of estrogen on its development and its progression and research più current suggest the existence of an inverse relationship between the exposure to them in the course of life and the risk of developing the disease.

it has been observed that estrogens modulate dopaminergic transmission, and promoting the presence of dopamine between neurons.

The experimental evidence obtained in the laboratory are very promising. In experimental animals such as mice, in which genetic heritage is identical to that of the man for l’85%, estrogen helps the nerve cells to repair the damage caused by the età and what is even more important, facilitate the neurons, especially in nigrostriatal, to produce greater and greater amounts and categories of neurotransmitters. Estrogen increases the presence of dopamine decrease in Parkinson’s disease, reducing così the damage caused by the disease.

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The neuroprotective role of estrogen is also determined by their capacity to lower the production of interleukin-6 (IL-6). IL-6 is a protein that acts at the level of both pro and anti-inflammatory. Has the task to stimulate the immune response, for example during an infection or following a trauma or other tissue damage leading to inflammation. Recent data have demonstrated the role that inflammation plays in the pathogenesis of the disease, and the latter seems to be induced by increased levels of IL-6.

in the context of the research it is established how essential it is to try to identify the mechanisms and molecules that can decrease the levels. This is the reason why the discovery on the capacity of estrogen to decrease tissue damage in patients with Parkinson’s disease, is the road that is most travelled by many scholars.

“The understanding of the cellular and molecular basis of sex differences in the physiology of the brain and the responses to estrogen – says Prof. Ubaldo Bonuccelli Director UOC Neurology-AOUP of the Department of Neuroscience-Università di Pisa, and a part of the Committee Limpe and Dismov-Sin, the promoter of the National Day – può be important to understand the nature and origins of the pathological condition is sex-specific that results in the Parkinson’s disease and for the possible design of new therapeutic agents based on hormones, which may have optimal effectiveness in men and women.”

estrogen therapy may be useful for the treatment of different disorders of the brain, including Parkinson’s. There are many studies in the literature that emphasize the existence of differences in morphology, neurochemistry, and in the functionalityà the brain between men and women.

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The estrogen therapy può give general benefits, on the hot flashes, mood, sleep, joint pain, health, urogenital tract, the sessualità, but also specific benefits on brain health.

it was also demonstrated that the reduction early of the estrogen levels may be associated with an increase in the risk of developing the disease. A relevant fact published by Walter Rocca and his collaborators at the Mayo Clinic, indicates that women who have undergone removal of the ovaries, entering so early in menopause, have a higher risk of developing Parkinson’s disease. Without them, it seems that the brain age before, and worse. Taking estrogen does not mean, however, destroy the disease, but the hormone therapy has the important advantage of allowing for a disease progression more gradual and therefore less aggressive.

ultimately, the study of the source of the differences in the brain between a man and a woman and answers sex-specific estrogen, is essential to understanding usedà, prevalence, progression, and severityà Parkinson’s disease. Getting this information is crucial to be able to start personalized therapies.

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