About the journal Nature, a group of Italian researchers from the International Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology of Trieste, coordinated by professor Mauro giacca, has published an article that, probably segnerà a fundamental step in the fight against AIDS.
scientists have found where the HIV virus hides, once penetrated into the human cells, until the moment it re-emerges, and dà the beginning of the activity; destructive of the immune system.
The researchers were able to photograph the structure of the nucleus of T lymphocytes, and in this way have identified the “place” where the virus hides.
this Is an exceptional discovery that avrà effects extraordinary in the fight against AIDS.
difficultyà to combat the HIV virus, comes from the fact that this virus has the capacity to penetrate through the two “inputs” in the human cell and hiding in a group of genes that are part of the genome of the cell that hosts it.
The virus integrates in a group of genes that are called “trascrizionalmenmete active”.
to try To understand usò we are talking about, do a little jump back in and say that the transcription is a biological mechanism with which the DNA, in this case of HIV, once entered in the cell “passes” his / her information to a molecule called a RNA.
The information that the RNA has copied are read and translated into amino acid sequences, i.e. in the tiles that form the proteins or the virus itself, which in this way is replicated, but that being hidden is not identified, until it has produced damage to the immune system and, in some way, it is rendered insensible to the attacks of the immune system.
However, the reason for which the virus selects only some of the genes of the twenty thousand genes present in which to integrate and, above all, where you hid thus able to evade the immune system, as well asé the therapies are put in place to eliminate it remained largely unknown.
In the article published on Nature the researchers demonstrated that the integration takes place in the outer shell of the nucleus, in close correspondence to the nuclear pore, a structure that represents a point of passage between the nucleus and the cytoplasm of the cell.
This is the reason that makes the HIV virus practically immune from the attacks of the pharmacological, cioè the abilityà to hide and become “invisible”.
The extreme pericolosità of the virus, if from one side it is related to its mechanisms of human transmission, that is; the mechanism of sexual transmission which causes every day thousands and thousands of infections, the other is due to the capacity of the virus to insert its DNA into that of a cell, becoming così as one with the genetic heritage of the host.
The researchers were able to photograph the structure of the T lymphocytes, which play a central role in immunityà cell-mediated, and to draw a topographical map, which has permitted us to figure out where he is hiding the virus.
The discovery of the topographic map of the nucleus is an element essential to determine the life cycle of the HIV virus, and to prepare pharmacological interventions can be used to attack the virus even in the phase in which it is hidden.
it was a big success and it opens up great hopes of being able to eradicate the virus, through a series of targeted drugs, even before it is replicated and begins to do irreparable damage.
AIDS – HIV Infection and women at risk of più
3 marzo 2015