Fase dilatante del travaglio
the labor true: it serves to completely dilate the neck of the uterus due to the contractions and the pressure exerted by the head of the child.
This phase begins when the cervix is completely flat, the contractions are regular for intensityà, frequency, and duration, and the dilatation of the cervix is at least 4 cm. The duration of labor is variable, può also be very fast. The average duration is 6-8 hours for a woman at first birth, and 3-5 hours for a woman who has già had at least one birth.
the final moment of labor that leads to the birth of the child. Begins when the dilatation reaches a sufficient diameter to allow passage of the fetus.
The progressive descent of the fetus in the birth canal causes in women the feeling of having to accompany the contractions with pressures, that allow the child to come to the light and help the mother cope with the pain.
Sometimes, during the birth of the child, may cause tears in the spontaneous perineum più or less extensive which may heal alone or can be sutured.
In other cases, può be necessary to do a surgical incision of the perineum (episiotomy), under local anesthesia, to expand the ring, vulval, and facilitate the escape of the child.
the final part of the birth: this stage occurs the expulsion of the placenta and of the amniotic membranes, usually a short distance from the delivery and in any case within an hour.
The expulsion of the placenta is aided by oxytocin that increases in the maternal circulation when the child is attached to the breast.
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