> Miscarriage: symptoms, diagnosis and causes

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  • Definition
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  • Miscarriage symptoms
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  • Causes
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  • Diagnosis
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  • spontaneous Abortion how is done
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  • Pregnancy after miscarriage

Definition

For spontaneous abortion refers to the interruption of a pregnancy that occurs for reasons independent from the willà of the woman, before the 20th week. Not è a phenomenon così rare, in fact, it is estimated that about 10-20 percent of pregnancies end in spontaneous abortion. But in reality the number is probably very più high when you consider that many abortions occur when a woman does not even know she was pregnant.

generally, miscarriages occur due to abnormal development of the fetus, and then not for a bad management of the pregnancy (and therefore not due to the fault of the woman). It is fetal abnormalities difficult to detect and to understand.

Abortion spontaneo sintomi

The majority of miscarriages occurs before 12° week of pregnancy.

symptoms:

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  • Pain or abdominal cramps or back pain
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  • liquid spills or tissue from the vagina (the mucus is white in color-pink, clots)
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  • Stain or blood loss vaginal più abundant (losses brown or red)
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  • painful Contractions at intervals

it is important to emphasize that in the case of loss or vaginal bleeding in the first trimester, the majority of pregnancies continue successfully.

Cause

abnormal Genes or chromosomes

The spontaneous abortions (miscarriages) occur in the majority of cases becauseé the fetus does not develop normally. The anomalies related to the genes or chromosomes of the fetus are usually random and not related to problems inherited from the parents.

Examples of anomalies are:

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  • the Egg blind – clear. Pregnancy anembrionica, that is; when is the implantation of the fertilized egg, however, the fetus does not develop and does not grow.
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  • the intrauterine fetal Death. In this situation the embryo is present, but its development stops. The death of the fetus usually occurs before the onset of symptoms of the interruption of the pregnancy. (See here for the difficultiesà diagnostic of abortion via ultrasound)
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  • the molar Pregnancy. A molar pregnancy occurs to a genetic error at the time of conception. The cells of the placenta (trofoblastiche) develop a mass of abnormal cells (mola) which causes the loss of the pregnancy. It is, however, a rare circumstance.

women’s health

In some cases, the miscarriage può be due to conditions of health of the mother . Examples include:

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  • thyroid Disease
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  • uncontrolled Diabetes
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  • hormonal Problems
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  • Infections
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  • Problems of the uterus or cervix
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What does not cause miscarriage:

In general, the activitiesà of the procedure that follow do not cause a miscarriage:

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  • to Work, on condition of not being exposed to harmful chemicals or radiation.
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  • physical Exercise (moderate)
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  • sexual intercourse

risk Factors

Various factors increase the risk of miscarriage, including:

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  • the previous Abortions. After two or more miscarriages in a row risk of miscarriage is greater.
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  • the Età. Women of age above 35 years have a higher risk of miscarriage than women più young people. At the age of 35, the risk is around 20%. At the age of 40, the risk rises until you get to about 40%, at 45 years of age is approximately 80%. However, età paternal may play a role. Some studies suggest that women who start a pregnancy with men of età greater than can be più high risk of spontaneous abortion.
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  • the Problems in the uterus. The risk rises in the presence of some uterine anomalies or of the tissues of the cervix (the cervix incompetent, that is; when the uterus does not close well).
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  • the chronic diseases. Women who have a chronic condition, such as uncontrolled diabetes.
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  • the prenatal Testing-invasive. The chorionic villus sampling and amniocentesis, carry a slight risk of miscarriage.
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  • the Smoking, alcohol and drugs. The woman who smokes in pregnancy, the risk of più of the one who does not smoke. Also the consumption of alcohol or drugs increases the risk of spontaneous abortion.
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  • the Weight. The condition of underweight or overweight è been linked to an increased risk of spontaneous abortion.

Diagnosi

The doctor può do a series of tests:

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  • the examination. To verify a possible expansion of the neck of the uterus.
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  • the Ultrasound. To verify the heartbeat of a foetus and to determine if the embryo is developing normally.
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  • the blood Tests. In the case of miscarriage, può be useful to measure the pregnancy hormone (beta HCG) to verify the presence of the tissues of the placenta in the uterus after the alleged expulsion.

the Possible diagnosis are:

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  • the Threat of miscarriage. In the case of bleeding without the neck of the womb has started to dilate, there is a threat of miscarriage. These pregnancies are proceeding often without any further problems.
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  • the spontaneous Abortion inevitable. In the case of bleeding with uterine contractions and dilation of the cervix.
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  • the spontaneous Abortion incomplete. When only a part of the material to the foetus or the placenta has been expelled.
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  • the spontaneous Abortion within (felt). The placenta and embryonic tissues remain in the uterus, but the embryo is devoid of activity; the heart.
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  • the spontaneous Abortion, complete. When all the material abortifacient has been expelled (embryo and placenta). It is a circumstance common in miscarriages that occur before 12 weeks that does not require additional therapy.
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  • the septic spontaneous Abortion. When there is an infection in the uterus. Può arise a very serious infection that requires care in a timely manner. Typically is tied to the practice of abortion illegal, not health. Very frequently the time, is virtually disappeared in countries where abortion is legal.
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Miscarriage as it happens

Treatments and drugs

Threat of miscarriage

In the presence of a threatened miscarriage, the doctor può to indicate as a treatment to relax until the disappearance of symptoms (bleeding and pain). Other indications may be abstaining from sex and from the activity; physical. Not c’è confident that these solutions may reduce the risk of spontaneous abortion, however, may improve the situation. In addition, it is wise to avoid travel, especially in those areas where there is scarcity; to adequate sanitation facilities.

Aborto Spontaneo

With the ultrasound it is possible to determine the status of the embryo, if dead, or never format. In the case of miscarriage the choices are the following:

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  • the Wait. If there are infections you can; wait that the expulsion of the material of abortion happen naturally. A circumstance that occurs, usually within two weeks subsequent to the death of the embryo. However, it is rare that it is necessary to wait even up to four weeks, a time emotionally difficult for the woman. If the expulsion does not occur by itself, you canò the use of a pharmacological treatment or surgical.
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  • the drug Treatment. After the diagnosis of loss of pregnancy, if the woman does not want to wait and choose to accelerate the expulsion of the material of abortion, the doctor may use a drug that activates the process of expulsion. The medicine può be taken orally, but the physician may recommend taking a medication via the vagina in order to increase the effectiveness while minimizing side effects such as nausea and diarrhea. In 70-90 percent of cases the drug produces its effects within 24 hours.
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  • the surgical Treatment – curettage. It is a small surgery called dilation and suction curettage. In the course of this procedure, the doctor dilates the cervix and removes tissue from the inside of the uterus. Complications are rare, but may include damage to the connective tissue of the cervix or of the uterine wall. Surgical treatment is necessary in the case of a miscarriage is accompanied by heavy bleeding or symptoms of an infection.
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Pregnancy after miscarriage

Recovery

Normally, the physical recovery after a miscarriage takes from a few hours to two days. If you experience heavy bleeding, fever or abdominal pain, è need to go to the doctor.

The menstruation: can return within 4 or 6 weeks. Immediately after the miscarriage it is possible to begin to use any type of contraception, but is not recommended for two weeks following the event, have sexual intercourse and use of vaginal swabs.

Gravidanze future

there are No problems to have a pregnancy after a miscarriage, it is possible to become pregnant even during the menstrual cycle to the next. However, before attempting a new pregnancy, make sure that you are in physical conditions and adequate emotional (very often a woman feels a sense of guilt for a miscarriage).

it is important to remember that the miscarriage is usually a extraordinary event, the majority of women who have lived this experience, in fact, carries forward successfully with the next pregnancy. Only 5% of women have had two miscarriages in a row, and only 1% have had three.

If the woman has had more than three miscarriages, it is worth investigating possible causes. The doctor may use tests to check for uterine abnormalities, coagulation problems or chromosomal abnormalities.

However, if the reason is not identified does not mean that the woman should have to give up to attempt a pregnancy. In fact, 60-70 percent of women with repeated miscarriages for reasons not identified, then carry out a pregnancy successfully.

IN ARGOMENTO:

termination of pregnancy: disorders that appear after an abortion

False menstruation, symptoms and characteristics

Pregnancy risk

Nausea and vomiting in pregnancy: drugs

The health in pregnancy

October 10, 2015