In the Usa più halfà of pregnant women are overweight or obese. Obesityà is accompanied by an increased risk of gestational diabetes, preeclampsia, intrauterine death, congenital malformations, fetal macrosomia, increased risk of experiencing dystocia of the shoulders, injuries from childbirth, and obesityà childish.
With the increase of obesityà è become always più important to encourage pregnant women to exercise.
It was thought that exercise during pregnancy may increase the risk of infertilità, miscarriage, premature birth. As research studies show, forò, this attitude is changed.
Currently, the American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology recommends at least 30 minutes of activity; moderate, three times a week. In 2013, a study of Barakat et al has shown that although the exercise does not reduce significantly the incidence of gestational diabetes, forò to decrease the risk of macrosomia, caesarean section and increase of maternal weight.
Additional benefits of exercise in pregnancy include improved mood and posture, improvement in the tone and strength of muscles, increase in the rest of the night, and the best skills during the labor.
In most situations, the intensityà activityà physics può be controlled through the evaluation of the heart rate. A normal result of heart rate during exercise generally is calculated by subtracting your age from 220. Generally, the heart rate grows with the increase of the intensityà of the year. During pregnancy, forò, these calculations can not be applied.
In the first quarter c’è vasodilation, an increase in preload and tachycardia, while in the third quarter the women have to face an increase in the circulating volume. These physiological changes in the third quarter make it very difficult for most women to reach the heart rate expected for their age. To evaluate whether the intensity of exercise in pregnancy is better to know what is tiring for women.
The practitioners reported that often the pregnant women, they demand to know exactly how much and which exercise is beneficial for them and for their child. In general, there is a great number of activitiesà to which the women can participate in during pregnancy; from a walk, yoga, jogging light swimming.
Activitiesà, which can have a potential risk for abdominal trauma should be avoided. For example gymnastics, horseback riding, downhill skiing and football. L’diving is an activity; not recommended in pregnancy for the theoretical risk of decompression sickness in the fetus.
physical exercise and altitude should be followed with caution by pregnant women. For the American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology, the exercise of up to 1,800 metres is safe. Più at the top, forò, increases the risk to the fetus. It is important that the recommendations about physical exercise and high altitude are based on a small number of studies, and with few people involved.
After the first quarter is often said to pregnant women to avoid the supine position for long periods of time becauseé the gravid uterus may create an obstruction of the blood flow in the vein with a potential orthostatic hypotension. While this recommendation may; seem sensible, there are no data that support it.
it Is also recommended that pregnant women take precautions when carrying out physical exercise in places with ambient air damp warm, with appropriate clothing and proper hydration.
While physical exercise is recommended for the majority of the pregnancies, there are also contraindications. These include cervical incompetence or cerclage, placenta praevia after 26 weeks gestation, rupture of membranes, persistent bleeding in the second and in the third quarter, a previous history of preterm delivery and pre-eclampsia.
There are benefits of regular exercise for the fetus. A 2010 study by the Juhl et al has revealed a decrease in the incidence of children and large of small for the età in pregnancy, in women who carry out the activities; physical. The exercise also increases the surface area of the placenta, perhaps taking così a protective effect for the fetus.
Activitiesà physics after childbirth
continue the exercise in the post partum produces benefits, like a quick return to the weight pregravidico. For the health of women in post-partum non c’è evidence that the rapid return to activitiesà pregravidiche have side effects. Among the women who do the activities; physical one the study has shown that only 30% reach the level of fitness pregravidico and are also three times more likely to retain the weight that they have taken during the pregnancy compared to those who were in activity; physical in the post partum period.
Activitiesà physics in breastfeeding
physical exercise during lactation has been declared to be safe. Studies have shown that physical exercise has a negative effect on breastmilk production or on the levels of lactic acid, on the time of suction of the children or on weight gain.
There are long-term benefits for the children of mothers who have made exercise during pregnancy?
studies have shown that there are differences in height, circumference of the head or chest, in children of 5 years. There are differences in the motor coordination, integration, oculo-motor or in the school skills of reading. However, children of mothers who did exercise had a decrease in weight and fat percentage, and an increase of the skills in the spoken word, and a greater response in the intelligence test.
evidence demonstrates the benefits of exercise both on the mother and the child, encouraging physical exercise during pregnancy as a step positive in the war against the growing epidemic of sedentary lifestyle and obesityà.
agree with the recommendations of major professional medical associations states that women with pregnancy physiological they need to practice exercise as part of their healthy lifestyle before, during, and after pregnancy. This has minimal risk and has demonstrated benefits for both mother and baby. The doctors of general medicine and the patients will benefit in the future from studies on the best way to counsel and motivate patients to increase their activity; in physics.
Pregnancy low risk: the information contained in the video, così as the text of the song correspond to, and reflect recommendations taken from the guidelines of the schools of the Sanità international.
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Fonte: Women’s Health
4 February 2015