fluid retention (idremia) that is in the blood and tissues due to the hyperaldosteronism associated with a reduction in plasma proteins causes:
- a paste-like Consistency of the muscle mass
- weight gain
- Edema of the lower limbs (see: Ankles and swollen feet in pregnancy: causes and remedies)
- Increase lassità of the tendons and ligaments
The woman has greater speedà of the growth of the hair. In some cases, the processes of hypertrophy and hyperplasia of the bone (hyperostosis, bone gravidarum) can give the foal a look acromegalico.
pigmentation brownish può appear at the level of the linea alba, about any surgical scars on the mammary areola and around it and on the face (chloasma).
If the woman tends to hypertrichosis, sometimes this becomes very pronounced. May also appear as palmar erythema and nevi telangectasici (face, neck, limbs, chest).
Fibroids and molluscs of the skin (due to hyperplasia of the epidermis) often found in the neck and armpits in the second halfà of pregnancy, both in the form of sessile, which peduncolata.
In the second halfà of pregnancy, the uterus pushes up against the diaphragm and the excursions of the respiratory, are made più difficult; consequently, it is easy to have not an increase in the frequency of breaths, but an increase in the depth and width of theà of individual acts.
The type of breathing in women is cost-phrenic becomes perlopiù rib, for which they are the più frequent episodes of dyspnea, especially under stress.
The cardiovascular system has to support a larger work and this is realized in an increase of the stroke volume; the examination of the wrist evidenzierà an increased amplitude and a higher frequency. The cardiac output reaches its maximum at the 30th – 34th week (40% più).
The heart rate registers an average increase of 10 beats/minute. As the uterus increases in volume, the diaphragm is raised by turning the heart along the anterior-posterior axis; the itto of the tip moves to the fourth space, and about 3 inches to the left.
ekg, there has been a Q-wave deep and a reversal of the T in the third derivation. Subjectively sometimes the patient complains of arrhythmias and, more rarely, attacks of paroxysmal tachycardia.
The blood pressure remains unchanged and must be considered pathological values of minimum greater than 90 and a maximum greater than 140.
The flow in the renal increase from the 8th week and reaches its maximum at 16^, and then tends to decrease and to the-30th – 34th week back to normal values.
The glomerular filtration rate increases and the 15th week is the top 50%, then decreases and returns to normal levels at the third week after birth.
You have reduced the tone and peristalsis, ureteral, and bladder (progesterone). The ureter, especially the one to the right, is displaced laterally from the uterus; the bladder is pushed in front of the top.
All these modifications explain the urinary disorders that appear with relative frequency and, in particular, dysuria, and urinary frequency.
The stomach is pushed from the uterus up and to the left; also the handles are perlopiù pushed to the left for a destroposizione of the uterus. There is hypotonia of the stomach, esophagus, gallbladder and the intestine. Here are così explained episodes of difficultyà to stimulate digestion, heartburn, gastric and constipation.
The thyroid gland looks enlarged and moderately iperfunzionante; the basal metabolism is increased by 25%. Subjectively, the woman often feels hot and sweats.
central nervous System and the psyche
The pregnant woman is a tensiolabile. His nervous system is in a state of great instabilityà, easily prone to modifications similar to those that you have in the ciclotimici. The psyche and the activity; and emotional focus on your state of pregnancy, on the fetus and on the newborn baby.
Pregnancy low risk: the information contained in the video, così as the text of the song correspond to, and reflect recommendations taken from the guidelines of the schools of the Sanità international.
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Page last updated on June 5, 2013