> Vaccination against measles, rubella and mumps

Cos’è il morbillo?

measles is an infectious disease, very contagious, caused by a virus that is transmitted through secretions of the nose and throat.

And characterized by high fever, cough, conjunctivitis, and a characteristic eruption of the skin from the face it extends to the whole body. The fever lasts about a week, the rash 3-5 days. Measles può have significant complications: otitis in about one case out of 10, pneumonia in about 1 case out of 20, encephalitis acute in 1 case out of 1,000/2,000 people.

Other complications include diarrhoea, convulsions, bronchitis, and the reduction of platelets (thrombocytopenia). Some of the complications, in particular respiratory and neurological they can also be deadly. In addition, the acute encephalitis, and cause permanent damage (sordità, mental retardation) in 20-30% of survivors. There is no specific therapy for measles. the

Cos’è la rosolia?

rubella is caused by a virus that is transmitted from person to person through secretions of the nose and throat. And characterized by fever, mild swelling of the lymph nodes, especially those of the neck, and a rash that affects the entire body and può pass unnoticed.

Sometimes, especially in adult women, può cause pain and swelling of the joints. Another possible complication is thrombocytopenia. The main danger of rubella, forò, occurs when a woman gets the infection during pregnancy.

The virus, in fact, is very dangerous to the fetus, and può to cause the abortion that the birth of a child with serious malformations (for example, sordità, mental retardation, visual problems and congenital heart disease). There is no specific treatment of rubella.

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Cos’è la parotite?

The mumps (mumps) is caused by a virus that is transmitted through secretions of the nose and throat. Usually manifests itself with a swelling of the cheek caused by swelling of the parotid gland and fever mild. The swelling può simultaneously affect the two sides of the face, one side only, or first one and then the other.

The mumps può to cause meningitis in about 1 in 200. In addition, 20-30% of males who have mumps after pubertà have an inflammation of the testicles (orchitis), which canò cause sterilità.

there is No specific therapy against the mumps.

How often are measles, rubella, and mumps in the uk?

The percentage of vaccinated children is increased in recent years but it is still optimal; this is the measles, mumps and rubella are still frequent illnesses. In the years immediately preceding the introduction of vaccination, were reported in the media 74.000 cases of measles for the year.

Since the introduction of vaccination, the number of notified cases is progressively decreased; in 2002-2003, however, it is requires the uìcated a new epidemic. Over the two years considered, the epidemic has resulted in more than 5000 admissions with approximately 600 diagnosis of pneumonia, 140 diagnosis of encephalitis and four deaths.

In Italy, then continue to check for serious complications and deaths caused by a disease that is easily preventable. For sconfìread about this disease, is currently in progress a National Plan to vaccinate properly, the children in the second year of life, the children and the boys più large, not vaccinated previously.

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The goal is to eliminate measles in Italy by 2007. Also the number of notified cases of rubella is gradually decreased by the introduction of vaccination. In the ’70s, in fact, were being reported each year, about 16,000 cases of rubella, while from 2000 to 2004, on average, were recorded to 3,000 cases a year.

However, even today there are cases of infection in pregnancy resulting in abortion, death in utero and were born with congenital rubella syndrome. With regard to the mumps, however, until the late ’90 requires the uìcate epidemics every 2-4 years, with a peak of more than 40,000 cases notified in 1999.

Due to the increase in the percentage of children immunized in 2003 and 2004, you è touched the historic low of reported cases, with about 2,000 cases a year. the

What vaccine do you use?

vaccines against measles, rubella and mumps consist of live viruses inactivated, and are administered by subcutaneous injection. Currently, it is used a vaccine against all three diseases (trivalent vaccine MPR), for all children from 12 months of età.

Perché is carried out starting from the 12 months?

The majority of infants is protected for the first months of life by maternal antibodies. These interfere with the vaccination, making it ineffective. At 12 months of age; all children do not have più maternal antibodies, and can be vaccinated effectively. the

Perché è raccomandata nei bambini?

usually in young children, rubella is a mild illness. The main problem with rubella is the effect of the disease if contracted during pregnancy. If a woman contracts the infection during the first trimester of pregnancy, the virus can; infect the fetus causing abortion or severe malformations such as cecità, sordità or mental retardation.

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These events are usually referred to as congenital rubella. The vaccination of all children against rubella to reduce the circulation of virus in the general population, while protecting and, indirectly, even pregnant women.

What are the risks of the vaccination?

The vaccination antimorbillo-rubella-mumps può to cause at a distance of 7-10 days fever and sometimes a slight rash. Rarely può be associated with febrile convulsions, which heal spontaneously and leave no results.

Even moreù rarely the vaccination MPR può be associated with a transient decrease of platelets present in the blood.

In which cases you can’t; run?

As for the other vaccinations, in the case of a severe allergic reaction to a vaccine, subsequent doses should not be performed. Vaccination is contraindicated in case of severe allergic reaction to a component of the vaccine and in persons with deficiency of the immune system and during pregnancy.

The vaccination should be postponed in case of acute illness is important, or in the case of execution of some immunosuppressive therapies. Should be taken special precautions in people with tuberculosis, or who have recently conducted therapy with immunoglobulin, or who have had a decline in platelet after a previous dose of the MPR.

the Municipality of Rome – Department for Policies for the Promotion of the Child and the Family – Department XVI

Page updated on 31/5/2006