Cos’è the diabetes, role of insulin, what is the blood sugar, as manifested diabetes, the symptoms and consequences of diabetes mellitus.
Cos’è il diabete
diabetes is a disease caused by an alteration of the capacity of the organism to assimilate and take advantage of the hydrates of carbon. The term ” hydrates of carbon indicate the sugar, also called carbohydrates or carbs.
Source of energy for living beings, these substances are formed by three elements (carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, whose formula is that of the più spread of the sugars, i.e. the glucose.
what’s the use of sugars
All body cells, but especially cells of the brain and the muscles need glucose, substances that steal continuously to the circulating blood.
The glucose is split into molecules più small and from this division the cells can obtain the energy necessary for their activity; and survival.
How are used the sugars
once introduced in the organism with the food, the sugars are easily absorbed and passes quickly into the blood where it is found in the form of glucose (all sugars are transformed in the body, glucose). The percentage of glucose in the blood is measured from the glucose.
In a normal subject the blood glucose is; always the same (somewhere between 0.7 and 1.2 g per litre of blood).
To maintain a constant amount; of glucose provides the liver receives a large amount; of sugar assimilated from the digestive tract and becomes a part of fat, which are sent to the fatty deposits spread all over the body.
most of the carbohydrates to the liver forò stores them in itself, after they have been processed in a particular substance reserve, glycogen, while leaves in a circle, in the form of glucose, only a small amountà, that is; that gram per litre, that is the normal blood glucose.
Such amount; and sufficient for the normal requirements of all body cells including those of the muscles not controlled by the willà (the heart, the chest, the viscera).
If, instead, the muscles call for più, for example, to run the effort, the liver immediately will enter in circulation the right amount; of glucose is needed, taking it from its glycogen stores.
This mechanism is regulated by various hormones, including insulin.
A delicato balance
insulin is a substance produced by special cells present inside the pancreas, the islets of Langerhans (the insulin is the diminutive of the insula, i.e. the island) that is poured directly in the blood.
The insulin, which is a hormone, meaning a substance produced by special glands (endocrine), encouraging, on the part of the liver, the transformation of glucose into glycogen and its storage, while, on the part of the blood, favours the solution of glucose and its consumption.
With both of these actions, insulin tends così to reduce the quantity of sugar that is present in the blood, the door that is; to conditions of hypoglycemia (lower content of glucose in the blood).
The action of insulin è forò balanced by other hormones, including adrenaline, thyroid hormones, some pituitary hormones which act exactly the opposite (antagonist) and would, if it were insufficient insulin, hyperglycemia (superior blood glucose).
Under normal conditions, however, the two types of hormones, maintain a continuous balance, the relationship to the needs of the organism and to the intentions of the sugars with the food.
The insulin chemically it is a protein, a complex, formed by a chain consisting of more than 50 amino acids, separable in the digestive tract.
this is demolished by the digestive juices and not è administered orally, but by means of injections given beneath the skin.
its mechanism of action is still not entirely known, a hypothesis would know this hormone function of facilitating the entry of sugars into the cell.
its function is essential becauseé the cell membrane of certain tissues, especially muscle and fat, is resistance to the penetration of sugars in individual cells.
If there è a quantity; insufficient insulin, or if this is partially unused, or finally if, for various reasons, it only plays a part of its functions, you have diabetes. The first consequence is that take over the hormones antagonists and has thereforeò hyperglycemia. Così the amount; of glucose in the blood può reach 2-3 g per litre and also più.
While in normal conditions (i.e.; with glucose levels between 0.7 and 1.2) in the urine does not contain glucose, as the glucose in the blood exceeds 1.7 or 1.8 g per litre, and passes into the urine. This condition is called glycosuria.
più, to be able to eliminate glucose in the urine, the kidneys are forced to dilute, increasing thereforeò the amount; daily: è polyuria (urinating up to 4-5 liters per day) that causes of course a considerable sense of thirst, so the diabetic drinks a lot of più that of the rule (polydipsia).
The term diabetes was given by the ancients because of the presence of these two symptoms, that were to assume that the liquid, taken and disposed of in large quantityà, are limited to pass through the body (dia baino = to go through).
To be precise, it says, diabetes mellitus, which means sweet (for the presence of sugar in the urine), or diabetes. Diabetes insipidus is another disease, which is caused by still another mechanism, which has as a symptom an increase in the excretion of urine.
Dieta per il diabete mellito
The più serious consequences of diabetes untreated you have an impact on the whole organism.
In the young più frequently observe the diabetes skinny, with a marked weight loss that depends on insulin deficiency, probably autoimmune in nature. Is a form that tends to result in più serious in between all the complications of the disease, the diabetic coma, because of the difficultyà control.
In età the adult observes the più often diabetes fat or even prosperous, in which there is an incomplete activity; insulin.
diabetes, it also acts negatively on the vessels, especially the coronary arteries (which nourish the heart), those of the fundus of the eye, those of the kidneys and the brain.
the Other characteristic symptoms of diabetes are fatigue (tiredness strong and invincible), considerable appetite, itching widespread.
hyperglycemic Coma, and hypoglycemic
The diabetic può go out to meet the “diabetic coma” or “hyperglycemic”, always più rare with proper diabetes care.
The patient feels drowsy, nausea and vomiting are associated with small wrist (weak) barely perceptible, very low blood pressure, intense thirst, breath with the smell of acetone.
The condition can gradually worsen until you to procure deep sleep, with loss of consciousness, severe cardiovascular collapse, reflexes almost absent.
The treatment of this serious complication is very difficult and complex, and is based inter alia on the co-administration of glucose and high amount; of insulin.
The administration of huge doses of insulin or amount; of sugar was lower than expected from the diet or an increased consumption such as, for example, in activitiesà physical, can lead to another form of coma: the coma is insulin, which has a sudden onset and può cause loss of consciousness, with convulsions, breath normal, feeling of hunger and not of thirst, while the pulse is full and frequent and the blood pressure normal.
in addition to this form, sensational and dramatic, there are always, for the same causes, forms più to read consisting of cold sweats, lightheadedness, and dizziness.
In all cases, treatment is only one: the administration of intravenous glucose in the cases of coma and in the mouth in less severe forms.
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10 April 2014